PRE-INCAN HISTORY OF ABANCAY
It is not sure when the early humans came to the territory of the current department of Apurímac - Abancay. Is probable that the first inhabitants came and stayed in the area taking into account the fertility and abundance of natural resources some of these valleys have, and that their settlement was a contemporary of sites like Pampamachay (Junin, 6000 years BC).
The first settlers in the lands of this beautiful province of Abancay, possibly were the Quichuas, who lived in the adjacent areas of the rivers Apurímac and Pachachaca. In ancient times the quichuas inhabited the Amancay and Antahuaillas valleys, but were harassed and evicted by the Chancas in the year 800, then settling in the Tacmaras’ ayllu.
Since that time the area became a strategic point in the rivalry between the Aymaras, the Quechuas, the Chancas and the Incas of Cusco. William Prescot and Inca Garcilazo de la Vega said that the victors were the Quechua tribes against other smaller.
INCAN HISTORY OF ABANCAY
During this era is formed the first area of the Contisuyo region covering from the Apurímac River to the summits of Huancarama. Here was settled a branch of the great tribe of the Quichuas, whose ayllus were Chumpihuillcas, Cotocpampas, Huamansuyos and Aymaras; and its political center may have been Concacha.
The entire Antahuaylas sector was stubbornly defended by the Chancas for many decades. Later, during the reign of Inca Roca and Pachacutec and after bloody struggles were defeated by the last one in the attack to Cusco (In Yahuarpampa). After subjugation, Pachacutec populated the valley with Yungas mitimaes.
It was during the reign of Tupac Yupanqui when the first Tampu (or Tambo) was established in the other side of the Apurimac River, and was called Tampu-Orcco "Virile Tambo" as a base for the future conquests of the Huancas, Soras, Rucanas and Xauxas. It also tells the story that Inca Yupanqui loved to spend his holidays in Chontay, he loved its climate, orchards, delicious fruits and beautiful gardens (Valcarcel).
Dr. Alejandro Málaga found in the Archives of the Indies, that the people of Cotarma, Pichirhua and Chalhuaní were descendants of the ancient Quichua people.
The valley we always call "Valley of Abancay or Pachachaca," was known by the Incas with the name of Aucapana, which means in Castilian "Valley of the Trees".
COLONIAL HISTORY OF ABANCAY
Outlined the various stages through which passed the Incan Abancay, now we will explain period of the Spanish conquest, from the invasion to the last days of the colony.
The conquest of Peru is not different from other regions of America. The Inca Empire was invaded by the Spanish adventurers, who reached Cajamarca the fifteenth day of November 1532. Once the Inca Atahuallpa was killed, Pizarro took trip to Cusco (capital of the Inca Empire). The Spanish contingent reached Andahuaylas crossing the Amancay River Aucapana-Pachachaca), and entered the Amanccay Valley, reached Curahuasi and crossed the Apurímac River and finally arrived to Cusco on November 14 of 1533.
During the civil war between the conquerors, a battle took place in the Amanccay Valley on July 12 1537, between hosts of Pizarro, led by Alonso Alvarado, and the contingent of Almagro, led by Rodrigo de Orgoñez.
Amanccay turned important after the battle and by building the first Stone and Mortar Bridge in 1654. Some Spanish soldiers including Prado Cabrera, Vasco de Guevara, Diego de Istrinigo, Juan López de Iturizaga, and Hernán Bravo de Laguna stayed and set up residence in the warm and fruitful countryside of Amanccay; they found uninhabited lands without an owner, and then founded the estates of: Pachachaca, Patibamba, Condebamba and Illanya, which occupied almost the entire valley and surrounded the ancient Tambo of the Incas and the villages of Qorhuani and Ninamarca, and established them as a Spanish town. These estates appear in the Ordinance of Tambos of March 31, 1543 issued by Baca de Castro.
REPUBLICAN HISTORY OF ABANCAY
On August 29, 1834, The Peruvian President, General Luis José Orbegoso, called elections and in this announcement appeared the provinces of Abancay, Aymaraes and Cotabambas as members of the Department of Cusco.
During the government of Andrés de Santa Cruz, by a decree of August 23, 1838 and to form the province of Anta, the vast province Abancay was segregated. According to this decree of the following “doctrinas” were created: Abancay, Curahuasi, Huanipaca, Lambrama, Circa, Huancarama and the town of Collpa. By law of November 19, 1839, the Province of Abancay integrates the following parishes: Abancay, Circa, Lambrama, Pichirhua, Lucuchanga and Cotarma.
By Act of April 28, 1873 Abancay joined to the Department of Apurímac. Its capital: The Village of Abancay. The Congressman for Apurímac, Benjamin Herencia Zevallos presented a law project to raise the Village of Abancay to the rank of city, this proposal was seconded by the deputies José Manuel Ocampo, Rufino Montesinos, and Dr. La Torre (representative of Cusco), who argued for Abancay to be the capital of the Department of Apurímac. In the other hand, Deputies Samanez from Andahuaylas and Carranza from Ayacucho argued in a different way. The first proposal won by majority vote.
At the meeting of October 28 was adopted, without any debate, the final statement that raises The Village of Abancay to the rank of City. This final statement was elevated to the Senate and approved almost immediately and then promulgated by the Executive on 3 November 1874, giving Abancay the rank of City and Capital of Apurímac Department.